Wilson's Cloud Chamber at AEC's Brookhaven National Laboratory
For the invention of the cloud chamber he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927, becoming the only Scottish-born person to do so. He shared this prize with Arthur Compton. Despite this great contribution to particle physics, he remained interested in atmospheric physics, specifically atmospheric electricity, for his entire career. For example, his last research paper, published in 1956 when he was in his late eighties (at that time he was the oldest FRS to publish a paper in the Royal Society's journals), was on atmospheric electricity.
The Wilson crater on the Moon is named for him, Alexander Wilson and Ralph Elmer Wilson. The Wilson Condensation Cloud formations that occur after large explosions, such as nuclear detonations, are named after him.