Weather Monday
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Started by metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 1:28 p.m.

Happy New Decade!   Keep giving thanks to be living in the best time of human history.......every day of the new decade!

 Scroll down and  enjoy the latest comprehensive weather to the max...... occurring because of the natural physical laws in our atmosphere as life on this greening planet continues to enjoy the best weather/climate in at least 1,000 years(the last time that it was this warm) with the added bonus of extra beneficial CO2. 

Potential flooding Ohio River Valley and points south late this week! Potential severe wx in the South.

Very mild Southeast, Very cold West.  How far southeast will the cold shift be in week 1 AND week 2?  Blobs of cold will push east but recede quickly. 

Looks like the southern stream and northern stream will be trading blows with the boundary between sharply contrasting air masses going back and forth and back again the next 2 weeks.

Huge differences in models. Great uncertainty.

Merry Christmas present to humanity:

Winter Weather Forecasts

Light Snow in the Great Lakes/Northeast. Many feet of snow will start piling up in the N.Rockies/West the next 2 weeks.

  Snowfall the next 7 days below.
Here are the latest hazards across the country.

                                                            Southern Florida NE Gulf N of 25N E of 87WGulf from 22N to 25N E of 87W including Straits of Florida NW Gulf including Stetson BankN Central Gulf including Flower Garden Banks Marine SanctuaryW Central Gulf from 22N to 26N W of 94WCentral Gulf from 22N to 26N between 87W and 94W Atlantic from 27N to 31N W of 77WAtlantic from 27N to 31N between 70W and 77WAtlantic from 27N to 31N between 65W and 70WBahamas N of 22N including the Cay Sal BankAtlantic from 22N to 27N E of Bahamas to 70W Tropical N Atlantic from 15N to 19N between 55W and 60WCaribbean N of 18N between 76W and 85W including the Cayman BasinCaribbean N of 18N between 76W and 85W including the Cayman BasinCaribbean approaches to the Windward PassageAtlantic S of 22N W of 70W including approaches to the Windward PassageNewport/Morehead City, NCBrownsville, TXCorpus Christi, TXHouston/Galveston, TXNew Orleans, LALake Charles, LAMobile, ALTallahassee, FLTampa, FLMiami, FLKey West, FLFlorida KeysMiami, FLMelbourne, FLJacksonville, FLCharleston, SCWilmington, NCBaltimore/Washington, DCWakefield, VAPhiladelphia/Mt. Holly, PA/NJNew York, NYBoston, MAGray/Portland, ME Intra Coastal Waters from Schoodic Point ME to Stonington MECoastal Waters from Schoodic Point ME to Stonington ME out 25 NMWaters from Eastport ME to Stonington ME from 25 to 40 NMNortheast Minnesota and Northern WisconsinNorthern MichiganNorthern MichiganNorthern MichiganEast Central Wisconsin - Green BayEast Central Wisconsin - Green BaySouthern and Southeastern WisconsinNortheastern Illinois and Northwestern Indiana - ChicagoNorthern Indiana and Northwestern OhioSouthwestern MichiganNortheast Michigan - GaylordNortheast Michigan - GaylordNortheast Michigan - GaylordSoutheastern Michigan - DetroitSoutheastern Michigan - DetroitSoutheastern Michigan - DetroitNorthern OhioWestern New York - BuffaloWestern New York - Buffalo Northern MichiganLos Angeles, CASan Diego, CASan Francisco Bay Area/Monterey, CAEureka, CAMedford, ORPortland, ORSeattle, WALos Angeles AreaLos Angeles AreaLos Angeles AreaLos Angeles AreaLos Angeles AreaLos Angeles AreaSouth Central CaliforniaSan Francisco AreaWestern NevadaNorth Central CaliforniaNorthwest California CoastSouthwest Oregon and Northern CaliforniaNortheast Oregon and Southeast WashingtonNorthwest OregonNorthwest WashingtonEastern Washington and Northern IdahoSouthern Nevada, Southeastern California and Northwestern Arizona - Las VegasSouthwestern California - San DiegoCentral Arizona and California DesertsSoutheast ArizonaNorthern ArizonaUtahNorthern and Northeastern NevadaSouthwestern Idaho and Eastern OregonSoutheastern IdahoWestern Montana and Central IdahoCentral Montana - Great FallsNortheastern MontanaSoutheastern MontanaWestern WyomingSoutheastern Wyoming and Western NebraskaNortheastern ColoradoWestern Colorado and Eastern UtahSoutheastern ColoradoNorthern and Central New MexicoSouthern New Mexico and extreme Western Texas - El PasoTexas and OklahomaLubbock and South Plains TexasWestern Texas and Southeastern New MexicoWestern South Dakota and Northeastern WyomingNorthwestern Kansas and East Central Colorado - GoodlandCentral Nebraska - North PlatteNorth Central Kansas and South Central NebraskaSoutheastern South Dakota, Southwestern Minnesota, and Northwestern IowaNorthern and Northeastern South DakotaWestern North DakotaEastern Nebraska and Southwestern Iowa - Omaha ValleyNortheastern KansasSoutheastern KansasSouthwestern Kansas - Dodge CityCentral OklahomaEastern Oklahoma and Northwestern ArkansasDallas and Fort WorthCentral Texas - San AngeloAustin and San Antonio TexasCorpus Christi, Victoria, and Laredo TexasSouthern TexasTexas - Houston/GalvestonSoutheast Texas and Southwest LouisianaNorthern Louisiana and Eastern Texas - ShreveportArkansasSouthwestern MissouriNorthwestern MissouriCentral IowaSouthern MinnesotaNortheastern North Dakota and Northwestern MinnesotaNortheast Minnesota and Northern WisconsinSouthwestern Wisconsin, Southeastern Minnesota, and Northeast IowaEastern Iowa and Northwestern Illinois - Quad CitiesEastern Missouri - West Central IllinoisWestern Tennessee, Eastern Arkansas and Northern Mississippi - MemphisCentral MississippiSoutheastern LouisianaMiddle TennesseeNorthern AlabamaCentral AlabamaMobile - PensacolaWest Central FloridaEast Central FloridaPanhandle of Florida and Southwestern GeorgiaNortheast Florida and Southeast GeorgiaNorthern and Central GeorgiaLow Country of South Carolina and GeorgiaNortheastern South Carolina and Southeastern North Carolina - WilmingtonCentral South Carolina and CSRAWestern North Carolina and Northwest South CarolinaEastern TennesseeEastern KentuckyCentral KentuckySouthern Illinois and Indiana, Southeastern Missouri and Western KentuckyCentral and East Central IllinoisCentral IndianaNortheastern Illinois and Northwestern Indiana - ChicagoSouthern and Southeastern WisconsinEast Central Wisconsin - Green BayNorthern MichiganNortheast Michigan - GaylordNortheast Michigan - GaylordSoutheastern Michigan - DetroitSouthwestern MichiganNorthern Indiana and Northwestern OhioSouthwestern Ohio Northern KentuckyWest VirginiaWestern Virginia, Southeast West Virginia, and Northwest North CarolinaCentral North Carolina - RaleighEastern North CarolinaEastern Virginia, Southern Maryland and Northeast North CarolinaWashington D.C., Central Maryland, Northern Virginia, Eastern West VirginiaWestern Pennsylvania, East Central Ohio and Extreme Western MarylandNorthern OhioCentral PennsylvaniaNew Jersey, Delaware, and Southeastern PennsylvaniaNew York City and Surrounding AreasSouth Central New York and Northeastern PennsylvaniaWestern New York - BuffaloEastern New York and Western New England AreasBoston and Surrounding AreasNorthern Vermont and New YorkSouthern Maine and New HampshireNorthern Maine Gulf of Maine to the Hague LineGeorges Bank between Cape Cod and 68W north of 1000 fathomsSouth of New England between the Great South Channel and Montauk Point to 1000 fathomsSouth of Long Island between Montauk Point and Sandy Hook to 1000 fathomsHudson Canyon to Baltimore Canyon to 1000 fathomsBaltimore Canyon to Cape Charles Light to 100 NM offshoreCape Charles Light to Currituck Beach Light to 100 NM offshoreCurrituck Beach Light to Cape Hatteras to 100 NM offshoreCape Hatteras to Cape Fear to 100 NM offshoreCape Fear to 31N to 1000 FMGeorges Bank between 68W and the Hague LineEast of 69W to the Hague Line between 1000 fathoms and 39NEast of 69W and south of 39N to 250 NM offshoreBetween 1000 fathoms and 38.5N west of 69WBaltimore Canyon to 69W east of 1000 fathoms and south of 38.5N to 250 NM offshoreBaltimore Canyon to Hatteras Canyon between 100 NM and 250 NM offshoreHatteras Canyon to Cape Fear 100 NM and 250 NM offshoreCape Fear to 31N east of 1000 fathoms to 250 NM offshoreCape Flattery to Cape Shoalwater between 60 NM and 150 NM offshoreCape Shoalwater to Cape Lookout between 60 NM and 150 NM offshoreCape Lookout to Florence, OR between 60 NM and 150 NM offshoreFlorence, OR to Point St. George between 60 NM and 150 NM offshorePoint St. George to Point Arena between 60 NM and 150 NM offshorePoint Arena to Pigeon Point between 60 NM and 150 NM offshorePigeon Point to Point Piedras Blancas between 60 NM and 150 NM offshorePoint Piedras Blancas to Santa Cruz Island, CA between 60 NM and 150 NM offshoreSanta Cruz Island, CA to San Clemente Island, CA between 60 NM and 150 NM offshoreCape Flattery to Cape Shoalwater between 150 NM and 250 NM offshoreCape Shoalwater to Cape Lookout between 150 NM and 250 NM offshoreCape Lookout to Florence, OR between 150 NM and 250 NM offshoreFlorence, OR to Point St. George between 150 NM and 250 NM offshorePoint St. George to Point Arena between 150 NM and 250 NM offshorePoint Arena to Pigeon Point between 150 NM and 250 NM offshorePigeon Point to Point Piedras Blancas between 150 NM and 250 NM offshorePoint Piedras Blancas to Santa Cruz Island, CA between 150 NM and 250 NM offshoreSanta Cruz Island, CA to 120W between 150 NM and 250 NM offshoreSan Clemente Island, CA to Guadalupe Island from 60 NM Offshore west to 120W                                                                                                                                                                  

Purple/Pink/blue on land is cold/Winter weather. Brown is wind,  Green is flooding. Gray is fog.  Reddish is a red flag advisory.  

Go to the link below, then hit the location/county on the map for details.

                        Go to "hazards"                                                                                     


 Current Weather Map

NCEP Days 0-7 Forecast Loop
NCEP Short-Range Model Discussion
NCEP Day 3-7 Discussion


Understanding These Maps
Surface Map Legend
Precip Legend
NCEP Surface Maps

U.S. Surface Analysis
National Radar Image
12-Hr Forecast
24-Hr Forecast
36-Hr Forecast
48-Hr Forecast
Short Term Loop
Day 3 Forecast
Day 4 Forecast
Day 5 Forecast
Day 6 Forecast
Day 7 Forecast
Low Tracks Error Circle
Low Tracks Ensemble




Current Jet Stream

Low Temperatures Tomorrow Morning





Highs today and tomorrow.




By metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 1:32 p.m.
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Highs for days 3-7:

Another surge of warmth Eastern half.  Cold deepens in the West to far N.Plains to Upper Midwest, gushes east a times(temporarily), behind systems the next 2 weeks.

The boundary between these air masses in the middle of the country will be moving around a great deal the next 2 weeks.



By metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 1:32 p.m.
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Temperatures vs average for days 3-7.  

Another big surge of warmth boosts the magnitude of the positive/red anomalies. Cold/blue anomalies will grow tremendously the next week on this map for the West.

But the cold will penetrate eastward temporarily at times.


By metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 1:35 p.m.
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Surface Weather features day 3-7:

 Major storms and action will shift to the far Northwest. Very wet(excessive rains?) southern stream system in the south to north of the Ohio River towards the end of the week.

Cold and Warm Fronts will be moving back and forth the next 2 weeks.


By metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 1:36 p.m.
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Liquid equivalent precip forecasts for the next 7 days are below.

Huge Action shifts to the Northwest US!

 Numerous inches of rain from a potent southern stream system near the end of the points just north of the Ohio River. 

Day 1 below:

Day 2 below:

Day 3 below

Days 4-5 below:

 Days 6-7 below:

7 Day Total precipitation below:


By metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 1:39 p.m.
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Excessive rain potential

The maps below will soon help define the heavy rain risks for later this week. 

Mesoscale Precipitation Discussions


Current Day 1 ForecastCurrent Day 1 Excessive Rainfall Forecast
Valid 16Z 08/30/19 - 12Z 08/31/19


Day 1 Threat Area in Text Format  

  Day 2 and Day 3 Forecasts 
Current Day 2 ForecastCurrent Day 2 Excessive Rainfall Forecast
Valid 12Z 08/31/19 - 12Z 09/01/19


Day 2 Threat Area in Text Format 


Current Day 3 ForecastCurrent Day 3 Excessive Rainfall Forecast


By metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 1:40 p.m.
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Severe Storm Risk the next 8 days:

There will be the risk of severe weather later this week in the South. It's already being outlined below.

Current Day 1 Outlook
        1300 UTC Day 1 Outlook             
                Forecaster: Grams/Leitman
Issued: 30/1238Z
Valid: 30/1300Z - 31/1200Z
Forecast Risk of Severe Storms: Marginal Risk        
          Current Day 2 Outlook
          0600 UTC Day 2 Outlook               
                Forecaster: Mosier
Issued: 30/0537Z
Valid: 31/1200Z - 01/1200Z
Forecast Risk of Severe Storms: No Svr Tstms        
          Current Day 3 Outlook
          0600 UTC Day 3 Outlook               
                Forecaster: Mosier
Issued: 30/0725Z
Valid: 01/1200Z - 02/1200Z
Forecast Risk of Severe Storms: No Svr Tstms
          Current Day 4-8 Outlook
          Day 4-8 Convective Outlook



By metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 1:45 p.m.
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Last 24 hour precip top map

Last 7 day precip below that mapStatic map

By metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 1:45 p.m.
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Current Dew Points

Current Dew Points


Latest radar loop

Doppler Radar National Mosaic Loop



Upper Mississippi Valley sector loop


 (3400x1700 pixels - 2.2mb)
Go to: Most Recent Image


Central Great Lakes sector loop
Go to: Most Recent Image


    You can go to this link to see precipitation totals from recent time periods:

                              Go to precipitation, then scroll down to pick a time frame. Hit states to get the borders to see locations better. Under products, you can hit "observed" or "Percent of normal"

By metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 1:47 p.m.
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Soilmoisture anomaly:

These maps sometimes take a day to catch up to incorporate the latest data(the bottom map is only updated once a week).


Daily Soil Moisture Pecentile       

        Daily Anomaly Soil Moisture (mm)

        Monthly Soil Moisture Change


By metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 1:49 p.m.
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Drought Monitor maps:

Latest: The first map below is the latest. The 2nd one is from last week.

In july/August/Sept/Oct, it's typical to see some increase in drought because of  evaporation, seasonally exceeding low rainfall during those months. However, this year saw a HUGE increase in the Southeast!

January 2: DROUGHT the last  2 months has really shrunk. It's GONE in the Southeast! Wow! One area to watch is sw Kansas and S.Plains for the Winter wheat crop but it's  dormant right now. Drought in that area actually shrunk a tad the last week.

The maps below are updated on Thursdays.    



Drought Monitor for conus


Drought Monitor for conus





By metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 1:57 p.m.
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The top map is the Canadian ensemble average,  the maps below are the individual members that make up the average at the end of week 2.


Each member is like the parent, Canadian model operational model.......with a slight tweek/variation in parameters. Since we know the equations to represent the physics of the atmosphere in the models are not perfect, its useful to vary some of the equations that are uncertain(can make a difference) to see if it effects the outcome and how.

The average of all these variations(ensembles) often yields a better tool for forecasting. It's always more consistent. The individual operational model, like each individual ensemble member can vary greatly from run to run.........and represent an extreme end of the spectrum at times. The ensemble average of all the members, because it averages the extremes.............from opposite ends of the spectrum.........changes much less from run to run.

End of week 2....................0z  Canadian ensembles:

Updated 12z maps available this late...........turning colder late week 2 vs previous solutions. Potential for another polar vortex incursion south...on some solutions, mainly this particular model!

Starting with last week below:

Last Wednesday:  Still cross polar flow into Alaska(which will be frigid) and Canada. How much of that will make it south with the fairly zonal, mild flow in the US(but with weak troughing)?  It will be very difficult to keep a massive very cold air mass in Canada from tracking south of the US border, despite what the models think right now. The question for me is more of a, how much of that cold spurts south and where?

Thursday: Slightly deeper trough in the Rockies, where the best chance for cold to get in from a bitter cold Canada appears to be. 

Friday: Deeper trough again Rockies and vicinity(where the cold air is likely to go) enough that we have some modest ridging and warmer temps downstream.........especially Southeast but affecting the East possibly the Midwest. Very wet pattern, likely heavy snow in the cold air.

Saturday: Similar to yesterday. With the upper level ridge Alaska to far eastern Pacific and downstream upper level trough and the amount of frigid air in Canada from cross polar flow, its hard to imagine that alot of that will not penetrate deeply into the US, especially in the West to the Plains and the northern tier farther east.  Question is just how far southeast the cold will go. Low level cold air is very dense and often able to undercut the upper level flow...........going farther southeast than the steering currents would imply.

Sunday: Deeper trough West to Rockies to Plains. Ridge Southeast. Very wet with huge snows in the cold air..........some of the air will be frigid and gets farther southeast than forecasts 2 days ago.  Huge temp contrast from cold which spreads in and warmth in the Southeast.

Monday: Similar to yesterday but slightly more amplified. Stronger ridge Northeast Pacific, Deeper trough and slightly farther west in the West to Rockies to Plains. Slightly stronger upper level ridge in the Southeast.  Arctic air in Canada will come south, favoring the West and northern border states but the stout ridge in the Southeast will provide resistance to the cold and warmth in that region. How far southeast will the frigid air get and how long will it last? Other models have just a brief shot of cold today for the high population centers, especially in the East and Southeast(not much).

Tuesday: Same forecast philosophy as Monday and same amplified pattern but not quite as amplified as yesterday. Tons of precip with massive snow piling up in the colder air.  Big Winter storms possible between the contrasting air masses.

Wednesday:  Still an amplified pattern but on this run for this model, not quite as much as the previous 2 days. Ridge Northeast Pacific, downstream deep trough West to Rockies to possibly into the Plains. Huge ridge far Southeast US. See the detailed analysis for today, 2 pages down for the GFS ensembles.

Thursday: Blocking Ridge in the Southeast weakens.........everything shifts farther east, including the storm track and cold air .........making it COLDER at the end of week 2.

Saturday: Like the previous 2 days but MUCH more so today, this model gets rid of the blocking  Southeast ridge. As a result, the frigid temperatures in the West come gushing bodily eastward with a potential pattern change that spells an end to the amazing warmth at times in the Southeast to Midwest in recent weeks. Other models do not agree with this.

Sunday: The Canadian model looks MUCH colder than the other models here. Huge uncertainty.

Monday: The Canadian model continues MUCH colder than the other models. It has a ridge in the West/trough Midwest to East couplet that is almost the opposite of what some models show. It emphasizes the northern stream and takes it farther east because of the ridge at higher latitudes is sending down so much energy. The other models emphasize much more southern stream which is repelling/deflecting  the northern stream. 

360h GZ 500 forecast valid on Jan 21, 2020 12 UTC

GZ 500 forecastGZ 500 forecastGZ 500 forecastGZ 500 forecast

Forecasts for the control (GEM 0) and the 20 ensemble members (global model not available)

By metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 1:58 p.m.
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GFS Ensemble mean(average of all the individual solutions above).  The first map is a mid/upper level map. The 2nd one is a temperatures map at around 1 mile above the surface. These are anomalies(difference compared to average).

NCEP Ensemble t = 360 hour forecast




By metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 2 p.m.
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GFS Ensemble mean(average of all the individual solutions above).  The first map is a mid/upper level map. The 2nd one is a temperatures map at around 1 mile above the surface. These are anomalies(difference compared to average).

NCEP Ensemble t = 360 hour forecast

Last Monday: Ridge in the Southeast is stronger and farther west(warmer) today vs Sunday.

Tuesday: Ridge East, trough West.......heavy precip in the middle, huge snows in the colder air. Big Winter storms possible between the contrasting air masses.


There is frigid air coming south from Canada but the entry point is too far west to be bullish, since the high population centers and highest heating demand for ng is in the Midwest/East/South.

We have a solidly -PNA pattern thru the period which strongly favors the cold to continue in the West and to  have a tough time staying in the East, other than brief intrusions. Also a +AO(that does drop late) and +NAO that drops close to 0 late.  We need those last 2 indices to be, at least close to 0 if not negative to give the frigid air a chance to last in the Midwest/East.

The trend  for them to move in that direction at the end of 2 weeks and the AO has a couple solutions going negative and  with the massive upper level ridge in the Northeast Pacific being the main feature and forecast to strengthen and build northward, likely connecting/extending to Siberia..........establishing a cross polar flow into Canada and a down steam trough in the mid latitudes.........which will be ideal for the most frigid air on the planet to dump south via the Siberian Express.

The entry point is in the West with a stout upper level ridge in the East trying to hold it back. Seems to me that based on the past, the ridge in the East often loses the battle in the end to the more powerful northern stream's going to be difficult to hold back this massive amount of bone chilling air. 

Look at the magnitude of the upper level height anomalies below at 2 weeks. The building positives/west and negative/downstream couplet, with 100% certainty, anything close to this will drive Arctic/Polar air south.  This is  the most important dynamic going on. Almost as important is the modest positive anomaly in the East. This is what will be holding back the lions share of cold and making spurts of the cold eastward brief...if it weakens, the frigid air will come in bodily/eastward and stay for longer and be very bullish. 

So while the forecast is bearish with regards to HDD's in the Midwest/East because of the modest ridging, we are a stone's throw (on a global scale) at 2 weeks of it becoming very bullish.

Do note that this pattern will feature some MAJOR Winter Storms and  feet of snow in the cold sector........with the contrast in temps and jet stream providing tons of energy, along with the deep upper level trough and moisture flowing in from the ridging to the East. 

The heaviest snows will be in the West but possibly in the Upper Lakes to far Northeast where the southern edge of the cold/boundary has a chance to settle south and be overrun by moisture. 

This is also the ideal set up for ice/freezing rain, with the more dense, bitter cold at the surface, pushing southeast with north winds at lower levels and  undercutting the warmer/moist air aloft, where a southerly(south to north) component to air movement exists.

Thursday: Similar to yesterday. Where will the amplified Ridge/Trough/Ridge large scale features set up? Amplified flow pattern means some extreme weather.

Saturday: This model holds on to the same pattern thru 2 weeks on this solution. Massive Northeast Pacific ridge.........Deep trough/low Northwest US, big ridge Southeast US. With high confidence the WestNW will be very cold. Question is, how far east to take that cold?  The Southeast will be VERY mild well into week 2 but that could change if the Canadian model has it right.

Sunday: The GFS Ensembles still hold on to the same pattern at 2 weeks, even though it allows for temporary cold shots to sweep east. 

Monday: Same pattern, different day and again, much different and milder than the Canadian model at 2 weeks. 

NCEP Ensemble t = 360 hour forecast product


By metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 2:05 p.m.
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Latest, updated graph/forecast for AO and NAO here, including an explanation of how to interpret them...............mainly where they stand at the end of 2 weeks.

Previous analysis, with the latest day at the bottom for late week 2 period.

Discussions, starting with the oldest.

Last Wednesday: AO still gets extremely positive in the next week but tops out and potentially starts plunging lower at the end of 2 weeks(low confidence time frame). If that happens in 2 weeks, the bitter cold in Canada at the time will have a chance to move southward to lower latitudes(USA). NAO is positive but also dropping. PNA near zero. Indications of potential for much colder in parts of the US at the end of the period.

Thursday: AO spikes extremely high then plunges back to near 0 during week 2...........introducing a better chance for frigid temps that will be in Canada at the time of pushing farther south. NAO and PNA near 0, a tad positive.

Friday: AO continues very positive/high into week 2(not quite as high as earlier) but stays above 0 all the way out(though dropping a bit late. NAO stays a tad positive.  Both favor making it tough for bitter cold to travel deeply south from high to mid latitudes.........though there will be some that gets south of the US border. PNA near 0.

Saturday: Similar to Friday but extreme changes in the AO during week 2. After spiking to lofty positives, it plunges to 0 and possibly negative after that at the end of the period. NAO goes from positive, crossing to negative territory and the end of 2 weeks. PNA stays around 0.  Would rate the chances of cold pushing south during late week 2 as pretty high based on this, considering how cold it will be in Canada.

Sunday: AO way up and stays very positive for longer into week 2 today, with the NAO also more positive. This will make it tough to provide sustained push southward of the frigid air in Canada into the US.  It can surge south briefly behind cold fronts but the general flow pattern with a solidly +AO and +NAO are not conducive for air from high latitudes to be transported to the middle latitudes(other than short lived cold snaps).PNA is negative which strongly favors the cold to be aimed at the West and not the East. 

Tuesday: AO stays pretty positive for the duration with a wide spread at the end of 2 weeks(outside chance of it going negative). NAO stays positive too. PNA stays negative with low spread.  Unfavorable for cold air to remain deeply entrenched in the southern and eastern US.  Cold will impact the West/Rockies in a big way though. 

Wednesday: AO solidly positive but plunges at the end of 2 weeks, a couple even get below 0 then. NAO also positive but dropping to near 0 and a couple are negative.........this increases cold risks at and beyond 2 weeks at a time frame that is unreliable, however.  PNA stays solidly negative and dropping in week 2 which makes a strong case for the cold to hit in the West(there WILL be frigid air in W. Canada) and have a hard time penetrating deeply and staying in the East.

Thursday: Very positive AO regime crashes lower in week 2. NAO drops then also making deeper cold air intrusions more likely at the end of week 2. PNA stays solidly negative which will try to oppose this and greatly favors the coldest air in the West. 

Saturday: Very positive AO........but it plunges late in week 2. +NAO but that too drops to near 0 late in week 2.  Solidly -PNA but that is increasing late. Recipe for very mild temps in the Southeast and cold in the West until late..........when a pattern change featuring the cold air surging east could happen.

Sunday:  Same as yesterday. +++AO with +NAO and --PNA(very mild in the Southeast half) but they all move towards 0 later in week 2..............which has been the solution for numerous days now.

Monday: Similar to recent days, +++AO, +NAO and --PNA make it almost impossible for cold air surges to the SouthEast to remain for very long(and they will moderate greatly). Once again, the indices weaken in magnitude at the end of the period(not as much as yesterday). This has not resulted in it getting closer via progression of days, so is taken with a grain of salt. The Canadian model stands alone to contrast this with its COLDER week forecast with a sustainable shift in the pattern/cold.

By metmike - Jan. 6, 2020, 2:05 p.m.
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National Weather Service 6-10 day, 8-14 day outlooks.

 Updated daily just after 2pm Central.

Temperature Probability

6 to 10 Day Outlook - Temperature Probability Precipitation Probability

  6 to 10 Day Outlook - Precipitation Probability


the 8-14 day outlooks
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Temperature Probability

8 to 14 Day Outlook - Temperature Probability
8 to 14 Day Outlook - Precipitation Probability