This day in history Nov/Dec 2020-Jan 2021-feb
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Started by metmike - Nov. 4, 2020, 8:24 p.m.

November 4, 2020

1966 – The Arno River floods Florence, Italy, to a maximum depth of 6.7 m (22 ft), leaving thousands homeless and destroying millions of masterpieces of art and rare books. Also Venice was submerged on the same day at its record all-time acqua alta of 194 cm (76 in)...........during global cooling.

2008Barack Obama becomes the first person of biracial or African-American descent to be elected President of the United States.

By metmike - Nov. 9, 2020, 1:32 a.m.
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November 8, 2020

1960John F. Kennedy is elected as the 35th President of the United States, defeating incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon, who would later be elected president in 1968 and 1972.

1966 – Former Massachusetts Attorney General Edward Brooke becomes the first African American elected to the United States Senate since Reconstruction.

1988 – U.S. Vice President George H. W. Bush is elected as the 41st president.

By metmike - Nov. 9, 2020, 1:38 a.m.
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November 9, 2020

1851Kentucky marshals abduct abolitionist minister Calvin Fairbank from Jeffersonville, Indiana, and take him to Kentucky to stand trial for helping a slave escape.

1906Theodore Roosevelt is the first sitting President of the United States to make an official trip outside the country. He did so to inspect progress on the Panama Canal.

1989 – Cold War: Fall of the Berlin Wall: East Germany opens checkpoints in the Berlin Wall, allowing its citizens to travel to West Berlin.

1998 – A U.S. federal judge, in the largest civil settlement in American history, orders 37 U.S. brokerage houses to pay US$1.03 billion to cheated NASDAQ investors to compensate for price fixing.

By metmike - Nov. 11, 2020, 12:38 a.m.
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November 10, 2020

1975 – The 729-foot-long freighter SS Edmund Fitzgerald sinks during a storm on Lake Superior, killing all 29 crew on board.

2002Veteran's Day Weekend Tornado Outbreak: A tornado outbreak stretching from Northern Ohio to the Gulf Coast, one of the largest outbreaks recorded in November. The strongest tornado, an F4, hits Van Wert, Ohio, during the early to mid afternoon and destroys a movie theater, which had been evacuated.

By metmike - Nov. 11, 2020, 12:42 a.m.
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Awesome song and tribute!!

Gordon Lightfoot - Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald


SS Edmund Fitzgerald was an American Great Lakes freighter that sank in a Lake Superior storm on November 10, 1975, with the loss of the entire crew of 29. When launched on June 7, 1958, she was the largest ship on North America's Great Lakes, and she remains the largest to have sunk there.

For 17 years, Edmund Fitzgerald carried taconite iron ore from mines near Duluth, Minnesota, to iron works in Detroit, Toledo, and other Great Lakes ports. As a workhorse, she set seasonal haul records six times, often breaking her own previous record.[5][6] Captain Peter Pulcer was known for piping music day or night over the ship's intercom while passing through the St. Clair and Detroit rivers (between lakes Huron and Erie), and entertaining spectators at the Soo Locks (between Lakes Superior and Huron) with a running commentary about the ship.[5] Her size, record-breaking performance, and "DJ captain" endeared Edmund Fitzgerald to boat watchers.[7]

By metmike - Nov. 11, 2020, 11:45 p.m.
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November 11, 2020-Happy Veterans Day

1911 – Many cities in the Midwestern United States break their record highs and lows on the same day as a strong cold front rolls through.

1993 – A sculpture honoring women who served in the Vietnam War is dedicated at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C

By metmike - Nov. 11, 2020, 11:50 p.m.
Like Reply,_1911

The Great Blue Norther of November 11, 1911 was a cold snap that affected the central United States on Saturday, November 11, 1911. Many cities broke record highs, going into the 70s and 80s early that afternoon. By nightfall, cities were dealing with temperatures in the teens and single-digits on the Fahrenheit scale. This is the only day in many midwest cities' weather bureau jurisdictions where the record highs and lows were broken for the same day. Some cities experienced tornadoes on Saturday and a blizzard on Sunday.[1] A blizzard even occurred within one hour after an F4 tornado hit Rock County, Wisconsin.

Springfield, Missouri

In Springfield, the temperature difference was even more extreme. Springfield was at 80 °F (27 °C) at about 3:45 PM, before the cold front moved through. Fifteen minutes later, the temperature was at 40 °F (4 °C) with winds blasting out of the northwest at 40 mph (64 km/h). By 7:00 P.M. Central Standard Time (01:00 UTC 12 November) the temperature had dropped a further 20 °F (11.1 °C), and by  midnight, a record low of 13 °F (−11 °C) was established. It was  the first time since records had been kept for Springfield when the record high and record low were broken in the same day. The freak temperature difference was also a record breaker: 67 °F (37 °C) in 10 hours.[2]

metmike: An extreme event like that today, 109 years later would be blamed on manmade climate change!

By metmike - Nov. 13, 2020, 1:50 a.m.
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November 13, 2020

1970Bhola cyclone: A 150-mph tropical cyclone hits the densely populated Ganges Delta region of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), killing an estimated 500,000 people in one night.....this was during global cooling!

By metmike - Nov. 13, 2020, 1:53 a.m.
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The 1970 Bhola cyclone (during global cooling) was a devastating tropical cyclone that struck East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh) and India's West Bengal on November 11, 1970. It remains the deadliest tropical cyclone ever recorded and one of the deadliest natural disasters. At least 500,000 people lost their lives in the storm,[nb 1][1] primarily as a result of the storm surge that flooded much of the low-lying islands of the Ganges Delta.[2] This cyclone was the sixth cyclonic storm of the 1970 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, and also the season's strongest.[3]

By metmike - Nov. 15, 2020, 1:56 a.m.
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November 15, 2020

1777American Revolutionary War: After 16 months of debate the Continental Congress approves the Articles of Confederation.

1939 – In Washington, D.C., US President Franklin D. Roosevelt lays the cornerstone of the Jefferson Memorial.

1966Project Gemini: Gemini 12 completes the program's final mission, when it splashes down safely in the Atlantic Ocean.

By metmike - Nov. 16, 2020, 12:49 a.m.
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November 16, 2020

1990Pop group Milli Vanilli are stripped of their Grammy Award because the duo did not sing at all on the Girl You Know It's True album. Session musicians had provided all the vocals

By metmike - Nov. 17, 2020, 12:55 a.m.
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November 17, 2020

By metmike - Nov. 18, 2020, 12:37 a.m.
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November 18, 2020

1872Susan B. Anthony and 14 other women are arrested for voting illegally in the United States presidential election of 1872.

By metmike - Nov. 18, 2020, 12:38 a.m.
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Susan B. Anthony (born Susan Anthony; February 15, 1820 – March 13, 1906) was an American social reformer and women's rights activist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement. Born into a Quaker family committed to social equality, she collected anti-slavery petitions at the age of 17. In 1856, she became the New York state agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society.

In 1851, she met Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who became her lifelong friend and co-worker in social reform activities, primarily in the field of women's rights. In 1852, they founded the New York Women's State Temperance Society after Anthony was prevented from speaking at a temperance conference because she was female. In 1863, they founded the Women's Loyal National League, which conducted the largest petition drive in United States history up to that time, collecting nearly 400,000 signatures in support of the abolition of slavery. In 1866, they initiated the American Equal Rights Association, which campaigned for equal rights for both women and African Americans. In 1868, they began publishing a women's rights newspaper called The Revolution. In 1869, they founded the National Woman Suffrage Association as part of a split in the women's movement. In 1890, the split was formally healed when their organization merged with the rival American Woman Suffrage Association to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association, with Anthony as its key force. In 1876, Anthony and Stanton began working with Matilda Joslyn Gage on what eventually grew into the six-volume History of Woman Suffrage. The interests of Anthony and Stanton diverged somewhat in later years, but the two remained close friends.

In 1872, Anthony was arrested for voting in her hometown of Rochester, New York, and convicted in a widely publicized trial. Although she refused to pay the fine, the authorities declined to take further action. In 1878, Anthony and Stanton arranged for Congress to be presented with an amendment giving women the right to vote. Introduced by Sen. Aaron A. Sargent (R-CA), it later became known colloquially as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment. It was eventually ratified as the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920.

Anthony traveled extensively in support of women's suffrage, giving as many as 75 to 100 speeches per year and working on many state campaigns. She worked internationally for women's rights, playing a key role in creating the International Council of Women, which is still active. She also helped to bring about the World's Congress of Representative Women at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893.

When she first began campaigning for women's rights, Anthony was harshly ridiculed and accused of trying to destroy the institution of marriage. Public perception of her changed radically during her lifetime, however. Her 80th birthday was celebrated in the White House at the invitation of President William McKinley. She became the first female citizen to be depicted on U.S. coinage when her portrait appeared on the 1979 dollar coin.

By metmike - Nov. 21, 2020, 2:10 p.m.
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November 21, 2020

1877Thomas Edison announces his invention of the phonograph, a machine that can record and play sound.

1945 – The United Auto Workers strike 92 General Motors plants in 50 cities to back up worker demands for a 30-percent raise.

This was huge for the "Motor City"

1964   – Second Vatican Council: The third session of the Roman Catholic Church's ecumenical council closes.

Any Roman Catholics out there?

1992 – A major tornado strikes the Houston, Texas area during the afternoon. Over the next two days the largest tornado outbreak ever to occur in the US during November spawns over 100 tornadoes.

United Auto Workers

The International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, better known as the United Auto Workers (UAW), is an American labor union that represents workers in the United States (including Puerto Rico) and Canada. It was founded as part of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in the 1930s and grew rapidly from 1936 to the 1950s. The union played a major role in the liberal wing of the Democratic Party under the leadership of Walter Reuther (president 1946–1970). It was known for gaining high wages and pensions for auto workers, but it was unable to unionize auto plants built by foreign-based car makers in the South after the 1970s, and it went into a steady decline in membership; reasons for this included increased automation, decreased use of labor, movements of manufacturing (including reaction to NAFTA), and increased globalization.

UAW members in the 21st century work in industries including autos and auto parts, health care, casino gambling, and higher education. The union is headquartered in Detroit, Michigan. It has more than 391,000 active members and more than 580,000 retired members in over 600 local unions, and holds 1,150 contracts with some 1,600 employers.[2]


Being from Detroit and having a Dad that worked as an industrial engineer for 35 years for Ford Motor, is probably why I know a few things about this great man.

He is the guy my dad admired the most. Ralph Nader is number 2 on his list.

Read about his life. You'll be impressed too!

Walter Philip Reuther (/ˈrθər/; September 1, 1907 – May 9, 1970) was an American leader of organized labor and civil rights activist who built the United Automobile Workers (UAW) into one of the most progressive labor unions in American history.[1] He saw labor movements not as narrow special interest groups but as instruments to advance social justice and human rights in democratic societies.[1] He leveraged the UAW's resources and influence to advocate for workers' rights, civil rights, women's rights, universal health care, public education, affordable housing, environmental stewardship and nuclear nonproliferation around the world.[1] He believed in Swedish-style social democracy and societal change through nonviolentcivil disobedience.[2][3] He survived two attempted assassinations, including one at home where he was struck by a 12-gauge shotgun blast fired through his kitchen window.[4] He was the fourth and longest serving president of the UAW, serving from 1946 until his untimely death in 1970


Walter Reuther Documentary
Documentary film "Walter" about the labor leader Walter Reuther, produced by Tele-Tape Detroit for the United Auto Workers union in the 1970s (probably shortly after Reuther's death).

50th Anniversary of MLK's March on Washington - Walter Reuther's Speech
August 28, 1963 - Washington DC, UAW President Walter Reuther addresses the crowd at the March on Washington with Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr

Late addition:

November 22, 2020

John F. Kennedy/Assassinated

November 22, 1963, Parkland Hospital, Dallas, TX

Image result for president kennedy assassinated

By metmike - Nov. 24, 2020, 1:13 a.m.
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November 23, 2020

1971 – Representatives of the People's Republic of China attend the United Nations, including the United Nations Security Council, for the first time.

1978Cyclone kills about 1,000 people in eastern Sri Lanka.....near the end of global cooling

1992 – The first smartphone, the IBM Simon, is introduced at COMDEX in Las Vegas, Nevada.

  • 2015Blue Origin's New Shepard space vehicle became the first rocket to successfully fly to space and then return to Earth for a controlled, vertical landing.[13]
By metmike - Nov. 24, 2020, 1:18 a.m.
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November 24, 2020

1917 – In Milwaukee, nine members of the Milwaukee Police Department are killed by a bomb, the most deaths in a single event in U.S. police history until the September 11 attacks in 2001.

1932 – In Washington, D.C., the FBI Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory (better known as the FBI Crime Lab) officially opens.

1963Lee Harvey Oswald, the assassin of President John F. Kennedy, is killed by Jack Ruby.

1973 – A national speed limit is imposed on the Autobahn in Germany because of the 1973 oil crisis. The speed limit lasts only four months.

1974Donald Johanson and Tom Gray discover the 40% complete Australopithecus afarensis skeleton, nicknamed "Lucy" (after The Beatles song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds"), in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar Depression.

By metmike - Nov. 28, 2020, 1:01 a.m.
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November 27, 2020

1868American Indian Wars: Battle of Washita River: United States Army Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer leads an attack on Cheyenne living on reservation land.

1918 – The Free Territory of Ukraine is established.

1924 – In New York City, the first Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is held.

1973Twenty-fifth Amendment: The United States Senate votes 92–3 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States. (On December 6, the House will confirm him 387–35).


Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade 2014 Logo.png

The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City, the world's largest parade,[2] is presented by the U.S. based department store chain Macy's. The parade started in 1924,[3] tying it for the second-oldest Thanksgiving parade in the United States with America's Thanksgiving Parade in Detroit (with both parades being four years younger than Philadelphia's Thanksgiving Day Parade). The three-hour parade is held in Manhattan, ending outside Macy's Herald Square, and takes place from 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time on Thanksgiving Day, and has been televised nationally on NBC since 1953. Employees at Macy's department stores have the option of marching in the parade.

By metmike - Nov. 29, 2020, 2:17 p.m.
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November 29, 2020

1877Thomas Edison demonstrates his phonograph for the first time.

1929 – U.S. Admiral Richard E. Byrd leads the first expedition to fly over the South Pole.

Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who has been described as America's greatest inventor.[1][2][3] He developed many devices in fields such as electric power generation, mass communication, sound recording, and motion pictures.[4] These inventions, which include the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and early versions of the electric light bulb, have had a widespread impact on the modern industrialized world.[5] He was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of organized science and teamwork to the process of invention, working with many researchers and employees. He established the first industrial research laboratory.[6]

Edison was raised in the American Midwest; early in his career he worked as a telegraph operator, which inspired some of his earliest inventions.[4] In 1876, he established his first laboratory facility in Menlo Park, New Jersey, where many of his early inventions were developed. He later established a botanic laboratory in Fort Myers, Florida in collaboration with businessmen Henry Ford and Harvey S. Firestone, and a laboratory in West Orange, New Jersey that featured the world's first film studio, the Black Maria. He was a prolific inventor, holding 1,093 US patents in his name, as well as patents in other countries. Edison married twice and fathered six children. He died in 1931 of complications of diabetes.

By metmike - Dec. 2, 2020, 12:46 a.m.
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December 1, 2020

1824United States presidential election: Since no candidate received a majority of the total electoral college votes in the election, the United States House of Representatives is given the task of deciding the winner in accordance with the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

1913   – Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving assembly line.

1941World War II: Emperor Hirohito of Japan gives the final approval to initiate war against the United States.

1969 – Vietnam War: The first draft lottery in the United States is held since World War II.

By metmike - Dec. 3, 2020, 7:09 p.m.
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December 2, 2020

1993   – Space Shuttle program: STS-61: NASA launches the Space Shuttle Endeavour on a mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope.

2001Enron files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

By metmike - Dec. 3, 2020, 7:13 p.m.
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December 3, 2020

1800   – United States presidential election: The Electoral College casts votes for president and vice president that resulted in a tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.

1979 – In Cincinnati, 11 fans are suffocated in a crush for seats on the concourse outside Riverfront Coliseum before a Who concert.

1989 – In a meeting off the coast of Malta, U.S. President George H. W. Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev release statements indicating that the Cold War between NATO and the Warsaw Pact may be coming to an end.

By metmike - Dec. 7, 2020, 1:25 a.m.
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December 6, 2020

1884 – The Washington Monument in Washington, D.C., is completed.

1967Adrian Kantrowitz performs the first human heart transplant in the United States.

By metmike - Dec. 7, 2020, 1:29 a.m.
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December 7, 2020

1703 – The Great Storm of 1703, the greatest windstorm ever recorded in the southern part of Great Britain, makes landfall. Winds gustup to 120 mph, and 9,000 people die......during the Little Ice Age

1842 – First concert of the New York Philharmonic, founded by Ureli Corelli Hill.

1941World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor: The Imperial Japanese Navy carries out a surprise attack on the United States Pacific Fleet and its defending Army and Marine air forces at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. (For Japan's near-simultaneous attacks on Eastern Hemisphere targets, see December 8.)

2017 – The Marriage Amendment Bill to legally recognize same-sex marriages is passed in Australia's parliament.

By metmike - Dec. 7, 2020, 1:34 a.m.
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The Attack on Pearl Harbor[nb 3][11] was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States (a neutral country at the time) against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, just before 08:00, on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' formal entry into World War II the next day. The Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI,[12][13] and as Operation Z during its planning.[14] Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the United States Pacific Fleet from interfering with its planned military actions in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States. Over the course of seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U.S.-held Philippines, Guam, and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong.[15]

The attack commenced at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time (18:18 GMT).[nb 4][16] The base was attacked by 353[17] Imperial Japanese aircraft (including fighters, level and dive bombers, and torpedo bombers) in two waves, launched from six aircraft carriers.[17] Of the eight U.S. Navy battleships present, all were damaged, with four sunk. All but USS Arizona were later raised, and six were returned to service and went on to fight in the war. The Japanese also sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship,[nb 5] and one minelayer. A total of 188 U.S. aircraft were destroyed; 2,403 Americans were killed and 1,178 others were wounded.[19] Important base installations such as the power station, dry dock, shipyard, maintenance, and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building (also home of the intelligence section) were not attacked. Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, and 64 servicemen killed. Kazuo Sakamaki, the commanding officer of one of the submarines, was captured.[20]

Japan announced a declaration of war on the United States later that day (December 8 in Tokyo), but the declaration was not delivered until the following day. The following day, December 8, Congress declared war on Japan. On December 11, Germany and Italy each declared war on the U.S., which responded with a declaration of war against Germany and Italy. There were numerous historical precedents for the unannounced military action by Japan, but the lack of any formal warning, particularly while peace negotiations were still apparently ongoing, led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to proclaim December 7, 1941, "a date which will live in infamy". Because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning, the attack on Pearl Harbor was later judged in the Tokyo Trials to be a war crime.[21][22]

Casualties and losses
4 battleships sunk
4 battleships damaged
1 ex-battleship sunk
1 harbor tug sunk
3 cruisers damaged[nb 2]
3 destroyers damaged
3 other ships damaged
188 aircraft destroyed
159[6] aircraft damaged
2,335 killed
1,143 wounded
4 midget submarines sunk
1 midget submarine grounded
29 aircraft destroyed
74 aircraft damaged
64 killed
1 sailor captured[7]
Civilian casualties
68 killed[8][9]
35 wounded[10]
3 aircraft shot down
By metmike - Dec. 9, 2020, 2:03 a.m.
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1868 – The first traffic lights are installed, outside the Palace of Westminster in London. Resembling railway signals, they use semaphore arms and are illuminated at night by red and green gas lamps.

1979 – The eradication of the smallpoxvirus is certified, making smallpox the first of only two diseases that have been driven to extinction (rinderpest in 2011 being the other).

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.[7] The last naturally occurring case was diagnosed in October 1977, and the World Health Organization (WHO) certified the global eradication of the disease in 1980.[10] The risk of death after contracting the disease was about 30%, with higher rates among babies.[6][11] Often those who survived had extensive scarring of their skin, and some were left blind.[6]

By metmike - Dec. 10, 2020, 12:13 a.m.
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1861American Civil War: The Confederate States of America accept a rival state government's pronouncement that declares Kentucky to be the 13th state of the Confederacy.

1868 – The first traffic lights are installed, outside the Palace of Westminster in London. Resembling railway signals, they use semaphore arms and are illuminated at night by red and green gas lamps.

1884Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is published.

1906 – U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt wins the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in the mediation of the Russo-Japanese War, becoming the first American to win a Nobel Prize.

By metmike - Dec. 11, 2020, 12:57 a.m.
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December 11. 2020

1997 – The Kyoto Protocol opens for signature.

2008Bernard Madoff is arrested and charged with securities fraud in a $50 billion Ponzi scheme.

By metmike - Dec. 11, 2020, 1:14 a.m.
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metmike: This was just an earlier version of the Paris Climate Accord. Basically it was a complete failure. The main consequence of these countries not following? The planet greened up and developed countries maintained their strong economies. 

Very sadly, this time will be different. It took several decades of repeating the same junk science and fake climate emergency narratives over and over and indoctrinating our young people into the fake climate crisis religion but they have won. You will not like the results of this over the next several years.

Scroll down at this link to see my most recent description of the Climate Accord:


Note that we have been reading/reading about the coming climate apocalypse for over 3 decades now...being told we have to act now or it will be too late...........then, we never act and the earth keeps greening up as the weather and climate marches deeper into the current climate optimum

U.N. Predicts Disaster if Global Warming Not Checked



Carbon Dioxide Fertilization Greening Earth, Study Finds


Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC
Kyoto Protocol
Kyoto Protocol parties.svg  Annex B parties with binding targets in the second period
   Annex B parties with binding targets in the first period but not the second
   Non-Annex B parties without binding targets
   Annex B parties with binding targets in the first period but which withdrew from the Protocol
   Signatories to the Protocol that have not ratified
   Other UN member states and observers that are not party to the Protocol
Signed11 December 1997[1]
LocationKyoto, Japan
Effective16 February 2005[1]
ConditionRatification by at least 55 states to the Convention
ExpirationIn force (first commitment period expired 31 December 2012)[2]
Parties192[3][4] (European Union, Cook Islands, Niue, and all UN member states except Andorra, Canada, South Sudan, and the United States)
DepositarySecretary-General of the United Nations
LanguagesArabic, Mandarin, English, French, Russian, and Spanish
 Kyoto Protocol at Wikisource
Long name:[show]
Kyoto Protocol Extension (2012–2020)
Doha Amendment of Kyoto.svgAcceptance of the Doha Amendment  States that ratified
  Kyoto protocol parties that did not ratify
  Non-parties to the Kyoto Protocol
Drafted8 December 2012
LocationDoha, Qatar
Effective31 December 2020[5]
ConditionRatification by 144 state parties required
 Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol at Wikisource

The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew from the protocol, effective December 2012)[4] to the Protocol.

The Kyoto Protocol implemented the objective of the UNFCCC to reduce the onset of global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to "a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system" (Article 2). The Kyoto Protocol applies to the six greenhouse gases listed in Annex A: carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).[6]

The Protocol is based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities: it acknowledges that individual countries have different capabilities in combating climate change, owing to economic development, and therefore puts the obligation to reduce current emissions on developed countries on the basis that they are historically responsible for the current levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

The Protocol's first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012. All 36 countries that fully participated in the first commitment period complied with the Protocol. However, nine countries had to resort to the flexibility mechanisms by funding emission reductions in other countries because their national emissions were slightly greater than their targets. The financial crisis of 2007–08 helped reduce the emissions. The greatest emission reductions were seen in the former Eastern Bloc countries because the dissolution of the Soviet Union reduced their emissions in the early 1990s.[7] Even though the 36 developed countries reduced their emissions, the global emissions increased by 32% from 1990 to 2010.[8]

By metmike - Dec. 14, 2020, 2:37 a.m.
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December 14, 2020

1900Quantum mechanics: Max Planck presents a theoretical derivation of his black-body radiation law.

1962NASA's Mariner 2 becomes the first spacecraft to fly by Venus.

1964American Civil Rights Movement: Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States: The Supreme Court of the United States rules that Congress can use the Constitution's Commerce Clause to fight discrimination.

2012Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting: Twenty-eight people, including the gunman, are killed in Sandy Hook, Connecticut.


Planck's law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature T. The law is named after Max Planck, who proposed it in 1900. It is a pioneering result of modern physics and quantum theory.

Blackbody radiation is radiation produced by heated objects, particularly from a blackbody. A blackbody is an object that absorbs all radiation (visible light, infrared light, ultraviolet light, etc.) that falls on it. This also means that it will also radiate at all frequencies that heat energy produces in it. 

Everything glows, depending on its temperature. Hotter things glow more in shorter wavelengths. Cooler things don't glow so much, especially in short wavelengths. Partly the radiation wavelength depends on what the material is, and partly it doesn't. The part that only depends on temperature, and not on composition, is called blackbody radiation.

By metmike - Dec. 16, 2020, 12:47 a.m.
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December 16, 2020

1811The first two in a series of four severe earthquakes occur in the vicinity of New Madrid, Missouri.

1944 – World War II: The Battle of the Bulge begins with the surprise offensive of three German armies through the Ardennes forest.

By metmike - Dec. 16, 2020, 12:53 a.m.
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The New Madrid Seismic Zone (/ˈmædrɪd/), sometimes called the New Madrid Fault Line, is a major seismic zone and a prolific source of intraplate earthquakes (earthquakes within a tectonic plate) in the Southern and Midwestern United States, stretching to the southwest from New Madrid, Missouri.

The New Madrid fault system was responsible for the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes, and has the potential to produce large earthquakes in the future. Since 1812, frequent smaller earthquakes have been recorded in the area.[1]

Earthquakes that occur in the New Madrid Seismic Zone potentially threaten parts of eight American states: Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Oklahoma, and Mississippi.[2]

  • December 16, 1811, 0815 UTC (2:15 am); (M about 7.5)[9] epicenter in northeast Arkansas, probably on the Cottonwood Grove fault;[10]:p. 7 it caused only slight damage to man-made structures, mainly because of the sparse population in the epicentral area. The future location of Memphis, Tennessee, was shaken at Mercalli level-nine intensity. A seismic seiche propagated upriver and Little Prairie was destroyed by liquefaction.[11] Local uplifts of the ground and the sight of water waves moving upstream gave observers the impression that the Mississippi River was flowing backwards.[12]
At New Madrid, trees were knocked down and riverbanks collapsed. This event shook windows and furniture in Washington, DC, rang bells in Richmond, Virginia, sloshed well water and shook houses in Charleston, South Carolina, and knocked plaster off of houses in Columbia, South Carolina. In Jefferson, Indiana, furniture moved, and in Lebanon, Ohio, residents fled their homes. Observers in Herculaneum, Missouri, called it "severe" and said it had a duration of 10–12 minutes.[13]
Aftershocks were felt every 6-10 minutes, a total of 27, in New Madrid until what was called the Daylight Shock, which was of the same intensity as the first. Many of these were also felt throughout the eastern US, though with less intensity than the initial earthquake.[13]
  • December 16, 1811, sometimes termed the "Dawn Shock" or "Daylight Shock", occurred at 1315 UTC (7:15 am); (M about 7) with the epicenter in northeast Arkansas.[9]
By metmike - Dec. 18, 2020, 12:39 a.m.
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December 17, 2020

1903 – The Wright brothers make the first controlled powered, heavier-than-air flight in the Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

1943 – All Chinese are again permitted to become citizens of the United States upon the repeal of the Act of 1882 and the introduction of the Magnuson Act.

1989   – The Simpsons premieres on television with the episode "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire".[2]

2014 – The United States and Cuba re-establish diplomatic relations after severing them in 1961.

The Wright brothersOrville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912)—were two American aviation pioneers generally credited[3][4][5] with inventing, building, and flying the world's first successful motor-operated airplane. They made the first controlled, sustained flight of a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft with the Wright Flyer on December 17, 1903, 4 mi (6 km) south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. In 1904–05, the brothers developed their flying machine to make longer-running and more aerodynamic flights with the Wright Flyer II, followed by the first truly practical fixed-wing aircraft, the Wright Flyer III. The Wright brothers were also the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.

The Wright brothers

Orville and Wilbur Wright in 1905
Other namesWill and Orv
The Bishop's boys
Known forInventing, building, and flying the world's first successful motor-operated airplane, the Wright Flyer
Parent(s)Milton Wright
Susan Catherine Koerner Wright
RelativesKatharine Wright (sister)
Signature of Orville Wright    Signature of Wilbur Wright
Orville Wright
BornAugust 19, 1871
Dayton, Ohio
DiedJanuary 30, 1948 (aged 76)
Dayton, Ohio
Cause of deathHeart attack[1]
Education3 years high school
OccupationPrinter/publisher, bicycle retailer/manufacturer, airplane inventor/manufacturer, pilot trainer
Wilbur Wright
BornApril 16, 1867
Millville, Indiana
DiedMay 30, 1912 (aged 45)
Dayton, Ohio
Cause of deathTyphoid fever[2]
Education4 years high school
OccupationEditor, bicycle retailer/manufacturer, airplane inventor/manufacturer, pilot trainer

By metmike - Dec. 21, 2020, 12:52 a.m.
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By metmike - Dec. 22, 2020, 1:17 a.m.
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1620Plymouth Colony: William Bradford and the Mayflower Pilgrims land on what is now known as Plymouth Rock in Plymouth, Massachusetts.

  • 2020 – A great conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn occurs, with the two planets separated in the sky by 0.1 degrees. This is the closest conjunction between the two planets since 1623.[6]

Map of Plymouth ColonyJupiter and Saturn

By metmike - Dec. 23, 2020, 2:47 a.m.
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1808Ludwig van Beethoven conducts and performs in concert at the Theater an der Wien, Vienna, with the premiere of his Fifth Symphony, Sixth Symphony, Fourth Piano Concerto (performed by Beethoven himself) and Choral Fantasy (with Beethoven at the piano).

1989   – Berlin's Brandenburg Gate re-opens after nearly 30 years, effectively ending the division of East and West Germany.

2008 – An ash dike ruptured at a solid waste containment area in Roane County, Tennessee, releasing 1.1 billion US gallons (4,200,000 m3) of coal fly ash slurry.

metmike: That was REAL pollution!

  • 2010 – The repeal of the Don't ask, don't tell policy, the 17-year-old policy banning homosexuals serving openly in the United States military, is signed into law by President Barack Obama.[16]
  • 2016 – A study finds the VSV-EBOV vaccine against the Ebola virus between 70 and 100% effective, thus making it the first proven vaccine against the disease.
By metmike - Dec. 25, 2020, midnight
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Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ.

1758Halley's Comet is sighted by Johann Georg Palitzsch, confirming Edmund Halley's prediction of its passage.  This was the first passage of a comet predicted ahead of time.

By metmike - Dec. 28, 2020, 1:16 a.m.
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December 28, 2020

1836   – Spain recognizes the independence of Mexico with the signing of the Santa María–Calatrava Treaty.

By metmike - Dec. 29, 2020, 11:10 p.m.
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1997 – Hong Kong begins to kill all the city's 1.25 million chickens to stop the spread of a potentially deadly influenza strain.

metmike: Nobody thought much about such a thing back then!

Avian influenza in Hong Kong 1997-2002



            In 1997, a high-pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza virus caused serious disease in both man and poultry in Hong Kong, China. Eighteen human cases of disease were recorded, six of which were fatal. This unique virus was eliminated through total depopulation of all poultry markets and chicken farms in December 1997. Other outbreaks of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses occurred in poultry in 2001 and 2002. These H5N1 viruses isolated had different internal gene constellations to those isolated in 1997. No new cases of infection or disease in man due to these or other H5N1 viruses have been reported. This paper provides an overview and chronology of the events in Hong Kong relating to avian influenza, covering the period from March 1997 to March 2002.    

By metmike - Jan. 2, 2021, 12:06 a.m.
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1808 – The United States bans the importation of slaves

1942 – The Declaration by United Nations is signed by twenty-six nations

1947   – The Canadian Citizenship Act 1946 comes into effect, converting British subjects into Canadian citizens.[56] Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King becomes the first Canadian citizen.

1971Cigarette advertisements are banned on American television.

No more cigarette commercials in 1971..............Fred and Barny were bummed (-:

By metmike - Jan. 4, 2021, 1:48 a.m.
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By metmike - Jan. 5, 2021, 2:13 a.m.
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By metmike - Jan. 6, 2021, 11:35 p.m.
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1912   – German geophysicist Alfred Wegener first presents his theory of continental drift.[23]

1929   – Mother Teresa arrives by sea in Calcutta, India, to begin her work among India's poorest and sick people.[25]

1947Pan American Airlines becomes the first commercial airline to offer a round-the-world ticket.

1974 – In response to the 1973 oil crisis, daylight saving time commences nearly four months early in the United States

By metmike - Jan. 8, 2021, 2:37 a.m.
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By metmike - Jan. 10, 2021, 2:51 a.m.
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1984Holy See–United States relations: The United States and Holy See (Vatican City) re-establish full diplomatic relations after almost 117 years, overturning the United States Congress's 1867 ban on public funding for such a diplomatic envoy.

1985SandinistaDaniel Ortega becomes president of Nicaragua and vows to continue the transformation to socialism and alliance with the Soviet Union and Cuba; American policy continues to support the Contras in their revolt against the Nicaraguan government.

By metmike - Jan. 12, 2021, 12:20 a.m.
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1915 – The United States House of Representatives rejects a proposal to require states to give women the right to vote.

1966Lyndon B. Johnson states that the United States should stay in South Vietnam until Communist aggression there is ended.

1998 – Nineteen European nations agree to forbid human cloning.

By metmike - Jan. 14, 2021, 1:34 a.m.
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1943   – World War II: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill begin the Casablanca Conference to discuss strategy and study the next phase of the war.[7]

1973Elvis Presley's concert Aloha from Hawaii is broadcast live via satellite, and sets the record as the most watched broadcast by an individual entertainer in television history.

By metmike - Jan. 14, 2021, 11:42 p.m.
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1870 – A political cartoon for the first time symbolizes the Democratic Party with a donkey ("A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion" by Thomas Nast for Harper's Weekly).

1943   – The Pentagon is dedicated in Arlington, Virginia.

1973Vietnam War: Citing progress in peace negotiations, President Richard Nixon announces the suspension of offensive action in North Vietnam.

1976Gerald Ford's would-be assassin, Sara Jane Moore, is sentenced to life in prison.

1991 – The United Nations deadline for the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from occupied Kuwait expires, preparing the way for the start of Operation Desert Storm.

By metmike - Jan. 14, 2021, 11:45 p.m.
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By metmike - Jan. 26, 2021, 3:09 p.m.
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republic day 2021

metmike: Just a reminder that the US is not the only country in the world with political(and religious)  divisiveness and battles for justice. Planet earth is a huge place with almost 8,000,000,000 people, with 328,000,000 in the USA.

Republic Day is celebrated every year in India on January 26. On this date in 1950, the Constitution of India came into force after the country gained independence from British rule for over 200 years. On November 26, 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted the Constitution of India, which came into effect on January 26, 1950.

Honoring the date, educational institutes organize cultural programs, essay-writing, skits, or speeches. Students can commemorate the event by sharing quotes in their speeches. If you are looking for some inspiring speeches and quotes, here are some of our picks you can choose from.


Population of China-green, India-blue and USA-tan below.

By metmike - Jan. 29, 2021, 1:45 a.m.
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1886Karl Benz patents the first successful gasoline-driven automobile.

By metmike - Feb. 1, 2021, 1:09 a.m.
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About time to start a new thread on this!

Welcome to February!!

1861American Civil War: Texas secedes from the United States.

2003Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated during the reentry of mission STS-107 into the Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts aboard.

By metmike - Feb. 7, 2021, 1:02 a.m.
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1851 – The largest Australian bushfires in a populous region in recorded history take place in the state of Victoria.


Hijacking Australian 2019 Bushfire Tragedies:   Global wildfire activity has decreased.  Arsonists and human mistakes cause most wildfires. Adaptation/preparation can help the most.  January 2020.

1862American Civil War: Forces under the command of Ulysses S. Grant and Andrew H. Foote give the Union its first victory of the war, capturing Fort Henry, Tennessee in the Battle of Fort Henry.

1978 – The Blizzard of 1978, one of the worst Nor'easters in New England history, hit the region, with sustained winds of 65 mph and snowfall of four inches an hour.

By metmike - Feb. 10, 2021, 12:25 p.m.
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1933 – In round 13 of a boxing match at New York City's Madison Square Garden, Primo Carnera knocks out Ernie Schaaf. Schaaf dies four days later.

1967 – The 25th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified.

The Twenty-fifth Amendment (Amendment XXV) to the United States Constitution deals with presidential succession and disability.

It clarifies that the vice president becomes president if the president dies, resigns, or is removed from office, and establishes how a vacancy in the office of the vice president can be filled. It also provides for the temporary transfer of the president's powers and duties to the vice president, either on the initiative of the president alone or on the initiative of the vice president together with a majority of the president's cabinet. In either case, the vice president becomes acting president until the presidential powers and duties are returned to the president.

By metmike - Feb. 12, 2021, 12:24 a.m.
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1915 – In Washington, D.C., the first stone of the Lincoln Memorial is put into place

1999 – United States President Bill Clinton is acquitted by the United States Senate in his impeachment trial

By metmike - Feb. 18, 2021, 12:05 a.m.
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1801 – An electoral tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr is resolved when Jefferson is elected President of the United States and Burr, Vice President by the United States House of Representatives.

1959Project Vanguard: Vanguard 2: The first weather satellite is launched to measure cloud-cover distribution.

The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.  Satellites can be polar orbiting, covering the entire Earth asynchronously, or geostationary, hovering over the same spot on the equator.[1]

Meteorological satellites see more than clouds: city lights, fires, effects of pollution, auroras, sand and dust storms, snow cover, ice mapping, boundaries of ocean currents, energy flows, etc. Other types of environmental information are collected using weather satellites. Weather satellite images helped in monitoring the volcanic ash cloud from Mount St. Helens and activity from other volcanoes such as Mount Etna.[2] Smoke from fires in the western United States such as Colorado and Utah have also been monitored.

El Niño and its effects on weather are monitored daily from satellite images.  The Antarctic ozone hole is mapped from weather satellite data.  Collectively, weather satellites flown by the U.S., Europe, India, China, Russia, and Japan provide nearly continuous observations for a global weather watch.

By metmike - Feb. 21, 2021, 11:57 p.m.
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1973Cold War: Following President Richard Nixon's visit to the People's Republic of China, the two countries agree to establish liaison offices.

By metmike - Feb. 25, 2021, 10:46 p.m.
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1987Iran–Contra affair: The Tower Commission rebukes President Ronald Reagan for not controlling his national security staff.