COVID risk by age
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Started by metmike - April 5, 2021, 6:08 p.m.

Very impressive! Go to the link to see the enlarged chart in order to read it. 

Amazing that COVID is killing the older generation 85+ years at a rate of 8,700 times greater than those in the 5-17 year old category...........the ones least likely to die.

By metmike - April 5, 2021, 10:03 p.m.
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Cytokine storms are killing alot of people!!

                    Underlying Vulnerabilities to the Cytokine Storm and Adverse COVID-19 Outcomes in the Aging Immune System      

Probable age-related contributions to COVID-19-related cytokine storm, as well as observed clinical consequences. Created with ARDS = acute respiratory distress syndrome.

COVID-19-Induced Cytokine Storm in Older Adults and Its Consequences

The term “cytokine storm” was first used when observing the massive cytokine releases related to cancer or to cancer-related therapies (16,17). The term has come to be used in a host of clinical conditions, mostly related to cancer treatment responses or to infectious disease states (18,19).

In COVID-19, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α are among the early response molecules that rapidly rise in those at highest risk for severe disease and are key measurable components of the “cytokine storm” seen in a subset of patients with this infection (20–22). These molecules markedly amplify inflammatory pathway activation via nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling, which in turn sets off a chain reaction of pathophysiological damage and decline that contributes to increased mortality rates in those individuals who develop it. Indeed, circulating debris from infection and cytokine damaged cells as well as coronavirus accessory proteins further contribute to the storm (23). Circulating cell debris, termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), can result in a highly activated innate immune system partially uncoupled from the viral infection itself (24–26). In a recent paper studying the type 1 IFN response in COVID-19 patients, it was hypothesized that the NF-κB pathway can be activated from excess stimulation via viral components and DAMPs which can occur in the setting of a severe viral infection (27). The impairments in type I IFN responses, specifically reduced IFN-β and IFN-α in severe COVID infections, were associated with reduced viral clearance. In this case, as the cytokine storm develops and is amplified, a host of pathophysiological consequences in multiple tissues induce adverse outcomes and mortality increases.

For example, COVID-19-related pneumonia is among the more common and well-described causes of mortality that is amplified by the cytokine storm. In addition to viral cytotoxicity causing direct tissue damage, high levels of inflammatory cytokines damage and create gaps between endothelial cells, which in turn drives fluid leakage into alveolar spaces, hypoxia, further amplifying tissue damage and localized inflammatory signaling (28). Many of these inflammatory mediators also activate clotting pathways, leading to localized and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and further hypoxia. As the chain of events continues, severe lung injury, vascular collapse, and death can result (20,29,30).

Beyond contributing to pulmonary injury, the inflammatory molecules in the cytokine storm also trigger multiple and varied systemic signs and symptoms highly relevant to clinical outcomes observed in vulnerable older adults. Central nervous system signs and symptoms are very common in older adults with COVID-19, particularly headache and delirium (31,32). Additionally, severe anorexia and adipsia, known to be driven by cytokinemia, are common in older COVID-19 patients (33,34). Muscle wasting and fatigue are driven by elevated cytokines such as TNF, and satellite cell recovery is inhibited by IL-6, further supporting that the cytokine storm likely drives many additional COVID-19 signs and symptoms, as well as a slow functional recovery, in many older adults (35,36).

By metmike - April 5, 2021, 10:10 p.m.
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metmike: I thought these were some cool images below!

The possible pathophysiology mechanism of cytokine storm in elderly adults with COVID-19 infection: the contribution of “inflame-aging”

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By wglassfo - April 5, 2021, 10:36 p.m.
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In our country, we are being subjected to the old carrot or whip treatment

If we want to board an airplane, or perhaps one day cross the border to visit your country, I am positive we will need a vaccination certificate. The border certificate isn't needed as of yet, due to continued border closing.  I will bet we will need a vaccination certificate to board a plane and go some place, for a long time in the future

So: Here is the rub

My grandson and partner are young and healthy. They are willing to take their own chances on Covid-19 as they think the disease may NOT be worse than any side effects. They want a family. They don't want fertility issues or a baby born with any kind of problem. They know a new born can always have a chance of problems but what if the vaccine increases fertility or other problems associated with a future family

They read about the problem with that drug [can't remember the name] many women took and then had deformed babies

They would rather risk their own health and have the best chance of a healthy family of children

But: They also love to travel and now is a good time with no kids around and if they can afford gas money to Florida, then friends and relatives will have a spare bedroom.

What to do?? I suppose you can't have your cake and eat it, but golly I feel for them.

 The carrot or whip

By metmike - April 5, 2021, 10:56 p.m.
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Thanks Wayne!

                COVID-Apr. 5-pause in huge drop but we BEAT COVID!      

  RandPaul obliterates Fauci's junk science"theatre"            

                            5 responses |               

                Started by metmike - March 18, 2021, 1:44 p.m.